A creature is able to hold its breath for a number of minutes equal to 1 + its Constitution modifier (minimum of 30 seconds).

At the end of this time, it begins Suffocating. After a number of rounds equal to its Constitution modifier (minimum of 1 round), at the beginning of its next turn, it drops to 0 Hit Points and is dying. It can’t regain Hit Points or be stabilized until it can breathe again.

For example, a creature with a Constitution of 16 can hold its breath for 4 minutes. If it starts suffocating, it has 3 rounds to reach air before it drops to 0 Hit Points and is dying.

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